301
The HTTP response status code indicating that a site has permanently moved to a different location.

302
The HTTP response status code indicating that a requested resource has been temporarily moved.

404
The HTTP error code indicating that communication between the client and the server has been achieved, but that the requested resource could not be found.

A/B Testing
Randomly giving web site visitors one of two different versions of a web site (the “A” or “B” version) in order to determine which version is more effective in attracting business.

Above the Fold
Refers to anything immediately visible in a browser window when a web page is first opened. This is highly dependent on the resolution of the user’s display. For example, in 2000, the most common screen resolution was 800×600. Today the average resolution is 1024×768 or higher.

Abstract Marks
An abstract image that is used to express an idea or attributes about a brand. Typically, abstract marks are used for large companies. Abstract marks are also referred to as symbolic marks.

Acquisition Cost
The price of acquiring converting a potential consumer.

Ad Copy
The text inside of an advertisement such as slogans, descriptions, and calls to action.

Ad Flight
The amount of a time that an advertisement campaign is conducted for.

Ad Network
A company that offers its properties as real estate for advertisers. In online advertising, ad networks have the rights to the real estate that advertisers can place banners on as part of their campaigns.

Ad Server
A computer server that serves advertisements to websites and measures metrics associated with the banners. Updating the server with advertisements will change the content served to websites.

Ad Space
The real estate set aside on each webpage for advertisements as opposed to content. This is where banners actually appear.

Ad Units
Ads which appear on the web. These include banners, pop-ups, skyscrapers, interstitials, text links, and roadblocks.

Advertising
A form of communication that attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase, or to consume more of, a particular brand of product or service.

Affiliates
Web sites that post advertisements for products or services and receive commissions for click-throughs or sales.

Affinity Marketing
A way of targeting consumers by partnering brands that complement each other. The earliest examples of affinity marketing were branded credit cards featuring other businesses or products.

AIDA
Stands for Attention, Interest, Desire, Action. A simple way of describing the timeline of a possible consumer’s experience with an advertisement up to an eventual purchase.

Air Date
The first time and date that an advertisement is released to the public.

Alexa Rank
The Alexa Traffic Rank is a metric that determines a website’s popularity on the Internet. An Alexa Traffic Rank is important for comparing how one website compares to another in terms of demographics and overall traffic.

Analytics
The use of gathered or pre-existing data to inform a company of the optimal strategies or possible pitfalls of a marketing or business venture.

API
Stands for Application Programming Interface. It is a set of data structure or classes and libraries that is used to support applications.

App
An application specifically created for a smartphone, tablet, or similar mobile device. Though the term “app” has been in use prior to the advent of mobile, it now commonly is used to refer to an application being available in and operating using the mobile space.

Application
Any program that is designed to perform specific tasks for the user. Functions can range from email clients to image editors.

Attitude Study
A survey of opinions regarding a brand, used as a benchmark before and after making changes to it.

Audience
The group to which a service, product or message is aimed; called also the target audience.

Awareness
Percentage of a population (or a target market) who are aware of the existence of a given brand or company. There are two kinds of awareness: the first is “spontaneous”, which gauges the percentage of people who spontaneously mention a particular brand when asked to name brands in a certain category; the second is “prompted”, which evaluates the percentage of people who recognize a brand from a particular category when shown a list.

Awareness Study
A survey that examines an audience’s familiarity with a brand; it may be divided into “prompted” and “spontaneous” awareness.

B2B
Business that occurs between businesses.

B2C
Business that occurs between a business and consumers.

Baby Boomers
Baby Boomers refer to people born in the post World War II era of 1946-1964. According to Marc Gobé, author of Emotional Branding, Baby Boomers are focused on their generation and respond to cues of status, things that are earned, heroes and trailblazers, and the perks of hard work.

Bandwidth
A bit rate measure for data resource consumption or data resources available for consumption. It is generally expressed in bits / second.

Banner
The online advertisement that appears along the top of a web page.

Behavioral Marketing
Behavioral Marketing is the practice of using anonymous user data to deliver specific ads to potential consumers based on recent search and browsing history.

Bleed
When an image goes beyond the border of a page in print advertising. This is done to ensure that no white space will be visible to a potential consumer.

Blog
A journal type publication with thoughts and musings posted in chronological order. Blogs cover a wide variety of topics and may be both personal and commercial.

Blogroll
A collection of links to other blogs listed on a blog. A blog’s recommendations for similar blogs.

Bluecasting
Proximity marketing utilizing Bluetooth technology. Uses a Bluetooth kiosk to transmit text, images, and videos via OBEX protocol. The most current Bluetooth standard is Bluetooth 3.0.

Bonus Spot
Additional air time given to an advertising agency for no extra fee.

Bookmark
The storage of a Webpage’s URL for later retrieval. Bookmarks help users to return to pages that they like or find useful.

Brand
Perception of a product, service, experience, or organization.

Brand Architecture
The organization of brands within a single company.

Brand Attributes
The function or emotions that customers associate with a brand. These can be both positive and negative.

Brand Book
Document that articulates the parameters of a brand for members of the brand community. A brand book is a standardized set of brand-building tools.

Brand Community
Network of those who contribute to building a brand — including internal departments, external firms, industry partners, users, customers, and the media.

Brand Designer
One who helps shape a brand. A brand designer may be a graphic designer, strategist, marketing director, researcher, advertising planner, public relations specialist, web developer, copywriter and others.

Brand Essence
A brand’s simplification into a single core concept. Often a brand essence is a single word description of what a brand is meant to represent.

Brand Equity
Aggregate of distinguishing qualities of a brand drawn from all relevant stakeholders. This results in personal commitment to, and demand for, the brand. Various thoughts and feelings make the brand valued and valuable.

Brand Experience
How a brand is created in the mind of a stakeholder. Some experiences are “controlled” such as retail environments, products/services, advertising, web sites, etc. Some are “uncontrolled”, like journalistic comment and word-of-mouth. Strong brands arise from consistent experiences which combine to shape a clear, differentiated overall brand experience.

Brand Extension
The application of a brand name to a new or different product to lend credibility to the product and increase sales.

Brand Identity
The outward expression of the brand, which includes its name and its visual representation. The brand’s identity is its fundamental means of consumer recognition; it symbolizes the brand’s differentiation from competitors.

Brand Image
The customer’s net “take-away” from the brand. For users this is based on their own experience of the product or service concerned (“informed impressions”) and how well this meets expectations. For non-users it is based mostly upon uninformed impressions, attitudes and beliefs.

Brand Loyalty
Strength of preference for one brand compared to other similar available options. This is often measured in terms of repeat purchase behavior, or in terms of price sensitivity.

Brand Name
Written or verbal component of a brand icon; name of a service, product, experience or organization.

Brand Platform
A summation of every aspect of a particular brand. The overall values and goals of a brand. A brand platform covers everything related to a brand’s identity.

Brand Police
A manager or a team responsible for strict compliance with guidelines in the brand manual.

Brand Steward
One who is responsible for developing and protecting a brand.

Brand Strategy
Deployed by an organization/brand owner to to create brand equity, brand strategy embraces ‘big picture’ plans and tactics.

Brand Value
Monetary premium that results from having customers who are committed to a particular brand and who are willing to pay extra for it; also, the financial value attributed to the brand, apart from other tangible assets.

Brand Value Proposition
Emotional, functional and self-expressive benefits delivered by the brand that supply value to the customer. Brand value proposition provides the rationale for making one brand choice over another.

Branding
Any effort, endeavor, agenda or program to build a brand; the process of brand-building.

Brandmark
An icon, avatar, wordmark, or other symbol for a brand; also can be a trademark.

Broadcast Calendar
The industry-accepted calendar for both television and radio. Weeks run from Monday to Sunday and each month is four to five weeks long.

Browser Chrome
The borders of a web browser, including toolbars, scroll bars, and menus. The browser chrome must be taken into account during web design as it effects the width of the viewable page (See Above the Fold).

Buzz
Current public opinion regarding a service, product, experience, or organization.

Cache
File storage of web content so a web site can be accessed faster by a user.

Call To Action (CTA)
A Call To Action is a message or image imploring a user to act. A Call to Action can urge a user to do anything from buying a product to simply accessing a different web page by clicking on a button or text.

Campaign
A process: planning, creating, buying and tracking an advertising project from start to finish.

Casual Games
Casual games are typically defined by simplistic gameplay, short gameplay arcs, and requiring minimal investment of time from players. Casual games often work on freemium or advertising based models to make money.

Category Development Index
A statistic which shows the strength of a specific product in a specific market.

Cause Marketing
Cause marketing is the joint effort between a non-profit organization and a commercial company for a mutual benefit. The benefits for a non-profit organization are access to a greater amount of capital and consumer base, whereas the benefits for a commercial company are positive publicity and marketing opportunities.

CBO
A company’s Chief Brand Officer. The CBO is responsible for integrating the work of the brand community.

Challenger Brand
New or rising brand that is viable despite competition from the dominant brand in its category.

Character Trademark
A character is a personification of a brand. Characters become spokespersons for brands as well as an extension of them.

Charismatic Brand
A brand inspiring a high degree of loyalty; also known as “lifestyle brand” or “passion brand”.

Check-in
A check-in is a social media function that allows members of a social network to let their contacts know where they are or what they are doing.

Click Rate
Percentage of impressions that resulted in a click-through. Calculated by dividing the number of clicks by the number of impressions. For example, if a banner ad was clicked on 13 times after being displayed 1000 times, the banner ad would have a click rate of 1.3% (13/1000 = .013). This is also commonly know as a banner’s “click-through” rate.

Click-Through
The action of clicking on a banner and having one’s browser automatically redirected to the web page to which a banner is hyperlinked.

Client-Side
Refers to actions and changes that take place in a client on the user’s computer and do not require access to a remote server.

<Cloaking
Cloaking is a search engine optimization technique where separate content is shown to human visitors and search engine spiders. Search engine spiders see cloaked content, enhancing the searchability of a website’s content.

Clutter
Conceptual noise of a market place; a disorderly array of messages or elements that hinders understanding.

Co-Branding
Use of two or more brand names to support a new service, product, or venture.

Collateral Design
Printed materials that are used to present information about a business and its services, products and/or capabilities. Collateral design may include brochures, fact sheets, fliers, direct mail pieces, and other communications pieces, produced directly by the business. All of a company’s printed pieces should be in agreement with its overall marketing message and company image.

Consumer Trends
Consumer behaviors and habits that are observable in patterns. Typically, consumer trends follow what people purchase, how much they pay for it, and their satisfaction with that product or service.

Content Development
The development of original media for use by a brand. The content developed can be anything from a video series, collection of photographs, or collection of writings. Developed content is often used to support the overall marketing strategy of a product or brand.

Content Management System
A Content Management System (CMS) is a system, usually accessed through a web browser, that streamlines the process of creating and managing web site content.

Conversion
This term is used to describe the process of getting a web visitor to accept an offer, or become a paying customer. Advertisers aim for high “conversion ratios”.

Cookie
Text stored on a user’s computer so a web browser can remember a user’s session or preferences on a website.

Core Competencies
Those which best contribute to a company’s ability to compete; found in the areas of skill and competence.

Core Values
A long-term set of principles that characterize the ethics of a company; part of a core ideology.

Corporate Identity
At a minimum, is used to refer to the visual identity of a corporation (its logo, signage, etc.), but usually taken to mean an organization’s presentation to its stakeholders and the means by which it differentiates itself from other organizations.

Cost Overrun
An increase in a project’s cost that exceeds its budget. This usually occurs because of an underestimation of the project’s cost or because of scope creep.

Counterfeiting
When an individual and/or organization produces a product that appears as a branded product or service and that product or service is packaged and presented in a manner to deceive the purchaser or user.

Country of Origin
Customers’ attitudes (not necessarily formed by rational causes) to a product and their willingness to buy it are greatly influenced by the country, or countries, where the product has been designed and manufactured.

CPA
Cost-per-acquisition is one of the online payment models by which advertisers pay for every time they make a sale as a result of a click originating from an affiliate’s web site.

CPC
Cost-per-click is one of the online payment models by which advertisers pay for each click-through made on their advertisement. Prices typically range from 1 cent to over 50 cents per click-through. This is an ideal method of payment for advertisers who seek to be guaranteed that they pay for only clicked-on views of the banner and visit a page on their web site.

CPE
Cost-per-engagement is one of the online payment models by which advertisers pay for every time a potential customer engages with an advertiser’s interactive ad.

CPM
Cost-per-thousand (CPM) is one of the online payment models by which advertisers pay for every 1000 impressions of their advertisement. Prices may range from $1 to over $50 per thousand impressions. This is an ideal method of payment for advertisers who want confirmation regarding the number of people who see their banner. The “M” in CPM is from the Roman numeral for 1000 (“M” is derived from the Latin word “mille” meaning “thousand”).

CPP
Cost-per-point is one of the online payment models by which advertisers pay to reach 1% of a targeted audience.

Creative Brief
Document that sets parameters for a brand-building project. It includes context, goals, processes, and budgetary constraints.

Cross Media Marketing
Marketing that goes beyond traditional advertisement by including extra incentives for product purchase.

Cross Platform Compatibility
A software attribute denoting implementation on more than one platform and interoperability between all platforms. Cross platform compatible applications can usually run regardless of operating system and do not have separate versions between each system. Examples would include the browsers Firefox and Chrome.

Crowdsourcing
Crowdsourcing is the hand-off of internal tasks to an outside community. The benefits of the practice is that that it can gather those most suited to a specific task and encourage mass-collaboration.

Culture
The culture and values of both a brand and the company behind it. A brand’s culture is not only an internal reflection of a brand’s identity, but also an outward expression towards consumers.

Customer Characteristics
Distinctive, typical and/or peculiar characteristics and circumstances of customers which can be used in market segmentation to distinguish one group of customers from another.

Customer Experience
The summation of a consumer’s experience purchasing and interacting with a brand’s product or service. Creating a positive customer experience is an integral part of building relationships with and loyalty among consumers.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
Tracking customer behavior for the purpose of developing marketing and relationship-building processes that connect the consumer with the brand. CRM can entail developing software or systems to provide one-to-one customer service and personal contact between a business and a customer.

Customer Service
The manner in which the brand meets its customers’ needs. Service can be offered via various channels. Common channels are: in-person (in retail, or entertainment, for example), telephone, internet (remote banking, for example).

Dark Site
A company’s dark site is a hidden web site that can be switched out with a currently visible web site to respond to a particular event or emergency situation.

Data-Mining
Data-mining is the process of discovering previously unknown patterns from very large data sets. For example, the determination of a new trend from information taken from all of a social network’s databases would be considered data mining.

Daypart
Designated divisions of the day in both radio and television that air different programming and consequently appeal to different demographics.

Decision Tree
The customer evaluates their wants and needs in a rational/emotional timeline leading up to brand purchase.

Definition
A premium left with prospective customers by a sales person, to remind them of the product or service being sold.

Demographics
Description of outward traits that define a group of people. Age, sex, nationality, marital status, education, occupation or income are often-seen categories. Decisions regarding market segmentation are often made after an analysis of demographic data.

Descriptive Tagline
A brand tagline that describes the product or service being offered clearly and succinctly.

Descriptor
Term used with a brand name to describe the category in which the brand is competing, such as “fluoride toothpaste” or “online bank”.

Design
In brand-building, where the aim is to create a positive brand experience: the planning and/or shaping of services, products, communications, systems, and environments.

Designated Market Area
A geographic area where the population can receive identical or similar programming. These area designations can include several cities or can be divided into smaller units such as neighborhoods.

Differentiaton
Creation or demonstration of unique characteristics in a company’s products or brands compared to those of its competitors.

Digital Marketing
Promotion of brands using the internet and/or mobile and other interactive channels.

Direct Marketing
Advertising that reaches consumers through direct channels such as mail, email, social media, promotional fliers, and other techniques. Direct Marketing messages are positioned to speak directly to consumers and engage them in a call to action.

Direct Marketing
Advertising that reaches consumers through direct channels such as mail, email, social media, promotional fliers, and other techniques. Direct Marketing messages are positioned to speak directly to consumers and engage them in a call to action.

Direct Response
Classification for an advertisement that advocates urgent action on the part of the viewer.

Disruptive Innovation
A new service, product, or business that redefines a market; also called discontinuous innovation.

Dynamic Keyword Insertion
The process of inserting a user’s specific search terms directly into an advertisement after a keyword search.

Earcon
An aural icon; an auditory brand symbol, United Airlines’ use of “Rhapsody in Blue” as a brand expression would be one example.

Earned Media
Earned media refers to the “buzz” or “viral” factor of a campaign garnered through paid or owned media. Earned media is created when customers respond well to a campaign and begin to promote the brand via word of mouth.

Eighty-twenty Rule
A general guideline that the eighty percent of the average product sold will be used by twenty percent of the customer base.

Emblems
Emblems are brand trademarks that use a shape that is directly connected to the name of the brand.

Emotional Branding
Aims at customers’ feelings through sensory experiences in the effort to brand-build.

Endorsed Brand Architecture
A brand heirarchy that uses the parent brand to create a positive association with the sub-brand.

Evangelist
An advocate for a brand, whether paid or unpaid.

Exclusivity
When a party grants the sole rights to a particular product or function to another party.

Exit Traffic
When a visitor to a Website leaves by clicking on an advertisement.

Extension
A new service or product that leverages the brand equity of a related service or product.

Feature
Any element of a product service, or experience, that is designed to deliver a benefit.

First Mover
A brand or company that starts a new category.

First Mover Advantage
The advantage held by the first company to move into a new market. This advantage often allows a company to remain at the top of its category despite fierce competition.

Flighting
A marketing tactic categorized by heavy advertising for a short period of time followed by inactivity. This is a cost-saving measure to maximize exposure and minimize cost.

FMCG
Fast moving consumer goods. FMCG refers to frequently purchased consumer items, such as foods, toiletries and cleaning products.

For Placement Only (FPO)
Indicates that the correct approved image or copy is still to come. A common form of FPO is Lorem Ipsum, a non-sensical Latin text that mimics common texts layout on a web page.

Four P’s
Refers to Product, Price, Place, and Promotion. Popularized in the 1960’s, the Four P’s are generally considered to be strong elements of marketing.

Four Quadrant Picture
A term referring to a movie that is marketed to all market demographics: men over 25, men under 25, women over 25, and women under 25.

Frankenbrand
Poorly aligned brand which often is a result from a merger or acquisition; a dysfunctional brand.

Front-End Development
The development of what the end user will see. Front-end development most commonly refers to the development of websites and the technologies underneath them and requires a combination of creating ease-of-use in addition to attention to aesthetics.

Futurecasting
This technique helps to envision future products industries, competitors, challenges, or opportunities; forecasting and imagination are combined.

Gen X
Shorthand for Generation X.

Gen Y
Shorthand for Generation Y.

Generation X
Generation X refers to people born between 1965 and 1976. According to Marc Gobé, author of Emotional Branding, Generation X is comprised of rebels and influencers who respond to themselves reflected in messages, fierce sarcasm, deconstructed paradigms, and luxury goods.

Generation Y
Generation Y refers to people born between 1977 and 1994. According to Marc Gobé, author of Emotional Branding, Generation Y is focused on conscience and respond to new ideas, companies with a philosophy, interesting people or communities, and messages that acknowledge their intelligence.

Generic
An unbranded service, product, or experience; also, a commodity or commodity product.

Generic Brand
A misnomer (since the terms “generic” and “brand” are mutually exclusive) often applied to a commodity product or store brand.

GeoTargeting
The determination of whether a particular ad should be shown or restricted based on the viewer’s geographic location.

Global Brand
A service, product, or company that competes globally.

Greenfield Opportunity
An untapped market that is open for the creation and expansion of a new brand and category.

Gross Cost
The price of placing an ad that a company pays, including the advertising agency’s markup.

Gross Rating Point
Operating on a scale of 1-100, a Gross Rating Point is equal to one percent of a target audience reached through a specific vehicle.

Group Buying
Group buying refers to the practice of offering products and services at discounted prices on the basis that a certain amount of products or services will be purchased by a set amount of consumers.

Guerilla Marketing
A marketing program using non-traditional channels to advertise products or services.

Harmonization
The alignment of the elements of a brand across geographic regions or product lines.

Hawthorne Effect
The tendency for persons to behave uncharacteristically when they are subjects of research.

Heavy-Up
A higher concentration of advertising in a specific time or season. An example would be increased advertising by toy companies during the holidays.

Hiatus
A planned period of advertising inactivity between bursts of exposure.

Hits
A record a of fulfilled request between a browser and a server. This is different than a page view because a hit can be recorded due to a variety of different actions taken on a web page.

HTML5
The successor to HTML4. HTML5 attempts to reduce the need for third party plug-ins to provide standard and interactive media to users by providing an extensive application development platform. Some of the benefits of HTML5 include video embedding, the ability to render graphics in real time, geolocation features, application caches, and handling vector-based images.

HTTP
Stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. HTTP is a network protocol that forms the basis for communication over the World Wide Web.

Icon
A brand’s visual symbol, usually based on a differentiated market position; can be a trademark.

Identity
The visual expression of a brand’s identity. It can be comprised of many things, ranging from color choice to type face. An identity is also referred to as a brandmark, trademark, symbol, mark, or logo.

Image
A manifest intangible item that is important, if not more so, than the materials, ideas and labor that go into the creation of a service, product, experience and/or brand.

Imperative Tagline
A brand tagline that prescribes action to the audience.

Impressions
Number of times a banner ad has been requested and has presumably been seen by users. It is often difficult to obtain an accurate impression count because they can be undercounted due to issues relating to cache, or overcounted due to requests that have not been completed.

Ingredient Brand
One brand is used as a selling feature in another brand.

Integrated Marketing
Collaborative approach that develops consistent messaging across media.

Intellectual Property
Intangible assets protected by copyrights and patents; the field of law that specializes in the protection of brand assets — including brand names, trademarks, shapes, sounds, colors and scents.

Junk Brand
A brand based on a facade rather than on a real value proposition.

Key Message
The main message that a brand wants to deliver to its target audience about itself and its product.

Keyword
Words used in searches by internet users. In recent years, keywords have become increasingly more important as businesses and advertisers compete for higher page rankings in search engine queries.

Keyword Density
The number of keywords on a page divided by the total amount of non-keywords on a page. Useful in determining the ranking that a web site will be given in relation to a keyword search.

Keyword Stuffing
The overloading of a webpage with keywords in meta tags or content to improve its visibility in a search engine.

KPI
Stands for Key Performance Indicator. KPis are used to help measure performance of an organization and progress toward organizational goals.

LBSN (Location-Based Social Network)
A social network that emphasizes the location of the user in its features. LBSNs often have check-in features which allow users to share their location and their friends’ locations with their network contacts.

Letterform Marks
The single letter equivalent of a wordmark. A stylized letter that embodies a brand’s identity.

Leveraging a Brand
The act of borrowing from the credibility of one brand in order to launch another brand, sub-brand, or co-brand; a brand extension.

Link Popularity
The number of web sites that link to a particular site.

Living Brand
A brand that changes, grows and sustains itself; a healthy brand.

Log
Precise record of a television or radio station’s programming and commercial schedule.

Logo
The visual expression of a brand’s identity. It can be comprised of many things, ranging from color choice to type face. A logo is also referred to as a brandmark, trademark, symbol, mark, or identity.

Logotype
A distinctive lettering style or typeface used in the presentation of a brand name; a wordmark.

Look and Feel
The sensory experience of a product, communication or environment.

Loss Leader
A product or service sold at a loss in the hopes of generating future profits.

LTV
In marketing, LTV (Customer Lifetime Value) is the present value of the cash flows attributed to customer relationships.

Macromarketing
Marketing that focuses on adaptation to environmental and economic factors beyond the control of the company or marketer by analyzing general conditions and national sentiment.

Mark
The visual expression of a brand’s identity. It can be comprised of many things, ranging from color choice to type face. A mark is also referred to as a brandmark, trademark, symbol, logo, or identity.

Market Penetration
The market share of a service, product or company compared to others in the same category.

Market Position
Measure of a company’s, or a product’s, position in a market; defined as share of market multiplied by mind share (mind share: development of consumer awareness or popularity).

Market Profile
A summary of the general conditions of a market, such as information on buyers, competitors, and larger factors that affect a market.

Market Segmentation
The division of a larger demographic into smaller sub-sets comprised of people or groups with similar characteristics which make them want or need a specific product or service.

Market Share
A company’s share of total sales of a category of product in a given market. It can be expressed either in terms of value (the worth of units sold) or volume (how many units sold).

Marketing
Involves the processes of developing, promoting, selling and distributing a service or product.

Marketing Aesthetics
The principles of perception used to enhance feelings and/or experiences of an audience in regards to brand identity.

Marketing Strategy
The overall strategy for a brand to concentrate its resources to attain market advantage, profitability, and increased brand awareness.

Mass Marketing
A marketing approach that focuses on high sales and low prices. Mass marketing ignores the specifics of demographic targeting and simply tries to reach the most amount of people possible.

Master Brand
The leading brand in a line or across a business, such as Sony or Pepperidge Farm, to which sub-brands can be added; a patent brand.

Media
The channels through which brand messages are delivered; examples are television, the internet, printed publications, direct mail, and outdoor posters.

Media Buy
The purchase of the advertising space for advertisements outlined in a media plan.

Media Plan
A media plan is the technical “plan of attack” for an advertising campaign. It details which advertisements will appear in which media and for how long.

Meme
An idea that self-reproduces like a virus; a catchphrase or concept, or other unit of social currency. Example: “Where’s the beef?”

Metonymy
When a word can be substituted for another word which it is heavily associated with. A relevant marketing example is when a brand name becomes so pervasive that it is substituted for the object or act itself. Examples include referring to a tissue as a Kleenex or the act of internet searching as Googling.

Mind Share
The achievement of popularity and total awareness in a consumer population. Mind share refers to the direct association of a brand name with a product category.

Mission
The summarization of a brand’s overall goal for both the company and the consumer. A mission embodies a brand’s ideal identity, purpose, and relationship with its consumers.

Mission Statement
A concise statement of the purpose and/or aspirations of an organization.

Mobile Marketing
Marketing via a mobile device such as a cell-phone, tablet, or similar hand-held device. This can take the form of mobile-friendly websites or more commonly an application distributed on the device’s network.

Monolithic Brand Architecture
A brand hierarchy defined by a master brand. Each sub-brand is an extension of the master brand.

Morpheme
“Naming Specialists” work with morphemes — the smallest units of language that have meaning. Words are coined, neologisms are created.

Name Brand
A product, service, or organization that is widely recognized.

Neologism
A word coined, or a phrase created, that can serve as a brand name.

Net Cost
The price of placing an ad that an advertisement agency pays.

Network Effect
A trend where a service becomes more attractive to a customer based on the amount of customers using it.

New Luxury
Goods and services that deliver higher quality and/or superior performance at a premium price.

Niche Marketing
A marketing approach that emphasizes high prices rather than high sales by advertising to specific subgroups. Niche marketing targets specific demographics who are more likely to purchase a product or service and focuses its efforts on those populations.

Observer Effect
A tendency for the presence of an observer to alter or change that which is being observed.

Opinion Leader
A person whose opinion and/or personality exerts a significant influence over other members of a group.

Owned Media
Owned media refers to a brand-owned channel. This can refer to a brand’s web site or social media account. This method of customer engagement is becoming more popular because of its inexpensive nature and the possibilities it offers for building long-term relationships with customers.

Paid Media
Any advertisement that a company or agency has paid to be displayed. This can take form in anything from a televised advertisement to an online clickable banner.

Perception
An impression received via the senses; integral to customer experience.

Persuasion Profiling
Interpreting data to determine what makes consumers experience the desire to purchase a product.

Pictorial Marks
An actual image used to embody a brand’s identity. The image may be a literal expression of the brand name or an expression of a brand attribute.

Place
Refers to the distribution channels where a product will be sold or marketed.

Pluralistic Brand Architecture
A brand heirarchy where the parent has little association with the sub-brand. Consumers may not even be aware of any connection between the sub-brand and the parent.

Position Indicators
Position indicators help a user navigate a web site by showing them where they are on the site in relation to other sections of the site. For instance, a navigation menu may highlight the title of the page that a user is currently browsing to show them that they are in that part of the site as opposed to another.

Positioning
The process of setting apart a service, product, or company in a customer’s mind, in order to gain a strategic competitive advantage; the first step in building a brand.

Price
The amount of currency required to purchase a product.

Privacy Policy
A legal document that informs users how a website may use a customer’s recorded or submitted data both internally and externally.

Product
Refers to either physical products or services.

Product Placement
A form of paid advertising whereby products and trademarks are inserted into non-advertising media such as feature films, television programs, music, and public environments.

Promise
A stated or implied pledge that creates customer expectations as well as employee responsibilities; FedEx’s on-time guarantee is a good example.

Promotion
Communication about a specific product to consumers.

Prosumer
In this category of products and services professional-level features are combined with consumer-level usability and price.

Prototype
A model, mock-up, or plan used to develop, demonstrate, evaluate and/or test a new product, service, environment, communication, or experience.

Provocative Tagline
A brand tagline that inspires thought in the consumer. A provocative tagline may be a question instead of a statement.

Proximity Marketing
The distribution of advertising content from a single physical location via data transmission to a consumer’s wireless device.

Psychographics
Identification of attitudes and personality characteristics that affect a person’s lifestyle and purchasing behavior. Some psychographic data points are attitudes, opinions, and beliefs.

Public Relations (PR)
The maintenance of an organization’s public image and the management of communications between the public and the organization. The advent of social media has changed the field of public relations considerably, and has led to new focus on online media as a means of maintaining public image.

Pure Play
A highly-focused brand and/or company, since the company has only a single line of business.

QR Code
A Quick Response code (colloquially referred to as a QR code) is a matrix barcode that can be read by a QR reader and thereby transmit information to users. It has become more popular with the rise of smartphones. While Denso Wave owns the patent rights to QR codes, they are currently free to use without license.

Qualitative Research
Research that is designed to provide insight; one-on-one interviews and focus groups inhabit this domain.

Quality Assurance (QA)
Monitoring the different components of a project to ensure they are able to satisfactorily contribute to the project as a whole. Quality assurance usually involves rigorous internal testing of a project so it may be delivered error-free to a client or the public.

Quantitative Research
Research that is designed to provide measurement; polling and large-scale studies are part of this type of research.

Radical Differentiation
A bold position is staked out; this allows a brand to stand out from the market clutter.

Radio-frequency Identification (RFID)
The utilization of radio waves to send data between an electronic tag and reader. The transmission of data can be used for both identifying a product and tracking it.

Reach
The number of individuals exposed to an advertising or brand message.

Real-Time
Real-time refers broadly to processes taking place in a continuous linear manner. Its applications can refer to real-time data collection, turnless games, or entertainment narratives that directly follow a timeline without skipping ahead or behind. A real-time feed will show posts regardless of user input, eliminating the need for a user to refresh a page for new or updated content.

Rebrand
A brand owner revisits the brand with the purpose of updating or revising; this is based on internal or external circumstances.

Remnant
The acquisition of remaining merchandise at a significantly reduced cost due to a distributor’s urgent need to sell what is left of its inventory.

Repositioning
Communications activities that will give an existing product a new position in customers’ minds so that market potential is expanded or otherwise altered. Many valuable products can lead an obscure existence because they were launched or positioned inadequately. It is very often possible to enhance the value of such products by repositioning them.

Reputation
The shared opinion of a service, product, or organization among everyone of the members of its audience.

Rich Media
Programmed video, audio, animated, and interactive content on a web site. Rich media is better able to engage a potential customer than simple text on a page.

RSS
RSS originally stood for RDF site summary, but is more now ordinarily defined as Really Simple Syndication. It is defined as a group of web feeds used to publish works that are updated frequently. An RSS feed includes both text as well as metadata such as author and date. RSS feeds are typically used for news articles or blog entries.

Run of Network (RON)
When ads are run across an entire ad network. Since this type of advertising is not targeted, it is cheaper than the purchase of specific slots.

Sales Cycle
For buyers, the cycle refers to the steps in making a purchase; for sellers, it is the steps in making a sale.

Scope Creep
Refers to a project’s scope being widened unintentionally. This generally results because of poorly defined project parameters or guidelines. Scope creep may cause slow development and cost overrun.

Search Engine
A program that utilizes algorithms and indexes for the retrieval of information or files, primarily from the Internet.

Segment
A group of individuals who are likely to respond to a marketing effort in a similar way.

Segmentation
Process of dividing a market into subcategories of persons who have similar values and goals.

SEM
Search Engine Marketing is a specialized form of internet marketing utilizing search engine optimization and contextual advertising to promote web traffic to a particular site and, as a result, a particular product or service.

Seniors
Seniors refers to anyone born before the year of 1946.

SEO
Search Engine Optimization is the process by which a company improves the visibility of its web site in a search engine by tailoring its site to be more accessible to a search engine’s methods and algorithms. The most common example of this is the editing of content or HTML to highlight the main keywords associated with the web site’s product or service.

Server-Side
Events that occur during a user’s web experience that require contact with a server such as the transfer of images and information.

Share of Visibility
The allocation of space in traditional or digital media.

Share of Voice
Share of Voice (SOV) refers to brands’ advertising weight, usually in percentile of total market or product category in a given time period.

Shelf Impact
Ability of a product or brand to stand out on a shelf by virtue of its design.

Signature
Well-defined visual relationship between a logo-type and a symbol.

Slogan
Memorable, easily recognizable phrase that is associated with a brand name; an aid to recall, as well as an aid to reinforcement.

Social Currency
Shared information that encourages further social interaction.

Social Media Chiclet
Small clickable buttons appearing on websites that allow users to share to their various social networks. Chiclets have become widespread on the web with the advent of Facebook’s Like and Share buttons, Twitter’s Tweet button, and Google’s +1.

Social Media Marketing (SMM)
Engaging online communities for the purpose of generating exposure, opportunities and sales. The number one advantage is generating exposure for a business, followed by increased traffic and the building of new business partnerships. Common social media marketing tools include Twitter, Blogs, Facebook, LinkedIn and YouTube.

Social Media Policy
A policy which governs brand or company actions in the social media sphere. In general, the trend has been towards fostering positive engagement, creating transparency, and taking ownership of mistakes.

Social Network
A network of people; it can be leveraged to spread messages or ideas using viral marketing techniques.

Social Optimization
Social optimization is the process of utilizing social media activity to attract unique visitors to website content. Two examples would be the inclusion of sharing buttons to content and the promotional participation in discussion on social platforms.

Soft Marketing
Non-traditional marketing strategies that appeal to customers in a subtle manner. These strategies can include everything from product placement to social media activity.

Soft Sell
An advertising technique that employs a friendlier and more casual sales message.

Specific Tagline
A brand tagline explains what line of business the brand is in.

Splash Page
A page that precedes a home page. A splash page may be used promotionally or may be used to determine a user’s computer capabilities (such as Flash compatibility) in order to deliver content.

Stakeholder
Any person or firm with a vested interest in a company or brand; this includes shareholders, employees, partners, suppliers, customers, and community members.

Standard Media
An advertisement that engages an audience primarily by drawing their visual or aural attention. Standard media is usually seen in clickable banners or similar formats.

Strategy
Embracing ‘big picture’ plans and tactics, strategy should be rooted in the brand vision and driven by the principles of differentiation and competitive advantage; used by an organisation/brand owner to create long-term brand equity which takes full competitive advantage from branding.

Sub-Brand
This secondary brand builds on associations with the master brand.

Subdomain
A domain under the umbrella of a larger domain (e.g. subdomain.maindomain.com). It is commonly used to point a specific function or division of a website.

Subliminal Marketing
Advertising through means that affect the subconscious mind rather than the conscious mind. In subliminal marketing, the audience is usually not aware that they are taking in an advertising message.

Superlative Tagline
A brand tagline that idealizes the product as the best product in its category.

SWOT
This conceptual tool analyzes strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

Symbol
The visual expression of a brand’s identity. It can be comprised of many things, ranging from color choice to type face. A symbol is also referred to as a brandmark, trademark, mark, logo, or identity.

Symbolic Marks
An abstract image that is used to express an idea or attributes about a brand. Typically, abstract marks are used for large companies. Symbolic marks are also referred to as abstract marks.

Syndicated Program
A program bought for broadcast from an independent organization or business rather than a network.

Tagline
Memorable, easily recognizable phrase associated with a brand name; it should be an aid to recall and reinforcement, as in Nike’s “Just do it”.

Target Audience
The group to which a service, product or message is aimed.

Target Market
A group of customers a business wants to serve.

Thought Leader
A brand whose outstanding presence in the market can be attributed to its influential ideas; the brand may not necessary lead in market share.

Top Level Domain (TLD)
A domain at the top of the heirarchy of the Domain Name System. For example, the TLD of www.domain.com is .com. Common TLDs are .com, .net, .org, .edu, .gov. Country level TLDs responsed to country code such as .uk, .ly, and .es.

Touch Point
Any location where individuals come into contact with a brand; locations and places include product use, packaging, store environments, advertising, editorial, movies, company employees, and casual conversation.

Trademark
A symbol and/or name that indicates the source of goods or services and prevents marketplace confusion; a form of intellectual property that is legally protectable.

Traditional Media
Traditional media is any media that existed prior to the digital revolution. The term primarily refers to television, radio, and print.

Traffic
The number of visitors or visits that any web site receives. Higher traffic indicates that more people are exposed to any given advertisement on a site.

Tribal Brand
A brand that has a cult-like following.

Trick Banner
A banner ad that deceives the user by imitating a non-advertising computer function.

UGC
User Generated Content (also referred to as Consumer Generated Content) is any asset created by a consumer and posted by a company. User Generated Content has become increasingly more important with the recent explosion of Social Media Marketing.

Up Sell
An attempt to sell a customer a more expensive product than the one that is currently being considered.

Upfront
A meeting held at the beginning on an important advertising period in order that potential advertisers may buy network time early.

Utility
The psychological satisfaction a consumer derives from making a purchase.

Validation
Validation is the process by which web sites are approved for general use. Since consumers use different operating systems and different browsers, it is important to validate a web site to make sure that it is capable of being correctly viewed in every way it may be accessed.

Values
The core traits that are embodied by a brand. Values help to build emotional connections with consumers.

Viral Marketing
Using social networks to spread messages or ideas. Important elements in viral marketing: Affiliate programs, co-branding, emails, link exchanges (on-line or off-line), memes, and any other advertising that stimulates word-of-mouth.

Vision
A concise statement communicating what a brand means to its owners and what the owners intend for the brand’s future direction.

Visit
Each unique access of a web site, consisting of entrance to departure.

Visitor
An individual accessing a web site.

W3C
The World Wide Web Consortium is a multi-faceted organization that strives to develop standardized protocols and guidelines for the web.

Web 2.0
A blanket term for web applications that facilitate user collaboration, open source design, and interoperation. Web 2.0 can be seen in social media web sites such as Facebook and Twitter. Similarly, Web 2.0 can be used to describe the Android operating system and the blogosphere.

Wireframe
A guide to the layout of a web site. It shows the location of the web site’s images, text, and features as well as how much room they will take.

Word of Mouth
The discussion of a product between consumers. A word of mouth recommendation of a product or service is perceived by most consumers to be the most reliable and trustworthy.

Wordmarks
A brand’s distinctive name or acronym stylized to reflect the brand’s identity.

WYSIWYG
“What You See Is What You Get” is a term that refers to editing interfaces that are able to display simultaneously both the source code and the final product of the code. An example is Adobe® Dreamweaver®.